Theoretical Blockchain Architecture Model (t-BAM) to Control Covid-19 Related Counterfeit Medical Products Across Supply Chain

Document Type : SI; Managing SCL in COVID-19


1 IIHMR University, Prabhudayal Marg, BudhsinghPura, Sanganer, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

2 School of Pharmaceutical Management, Babulde Banks of Tapi River,Mumbai-Agra Road, Shirpur Dist: Dhule, Maharashtra, India

3 Clinical Intelligence & Analytics, Akna Medical Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka , India


Covid-19 pandemic affected millions of people across the globe. Healthcare professionals need various kind of medical product like drugs, vaccines, other biologicals, and diagnostic equipment to combat pandemics. Fake vendors introduced falsified medical products in national and international markets during pandemic. These counterfeit products are life threatening due to inferiority in quality and available in noncompliance of label claim. Europol confiscated 34,000 counterfeit surgical masks in just one coordinated assignment of fake goods. The data for the unauthorized medical product sell is higher than expectation during this Covid-19 pandemic.
World Health Organization reported that up to $200 billion worth of counterfeit pharmaceutical products are sold globally every year.
It is a challenge to track and trace counterfeit medical products because these products must pass through many complicated distribution channels which allows opportunity for counterfeit drugs to enter in supply chain. In current supply chain methods, central authorities control transacted data among parties. Multiple intermediates needed to enable activities and creating trust. In this scenario, there is chance of manipulation in data fabrication. Blockchain protects supply chain and maintain a shared source of data information. Trust enabled by cryptographic algorithms and immutability of data preserved in Blockchain.
In this paper, a Theoretical Blockchain Architecture Model (t-BAM) proposed using Hyperledger Fabric as a Blockchain platform and Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) Algorithm for mutual consensus in supply chain of medical products during COVID-19 pandemic. This model validated for immutability, Mutual consensus, Transparency and Accountability, Privacy and Security, Temperature and Humidity control parameters.


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